Effect of Supplementation Followed by Processing on Nutritional Quality of Protein, Ca, P and Fe of Millet Flour

  • Elfadil E. Babiker
  • Azhari A. Mohamed Nour
  • Oladipupo Q. Adiamo
  • Ahmed S. Osman
Keywords: millet; moringa; fenugreek; fermentation; supplementation; anti-nutrients; protein; minerals


The effect of processing methods on millet flour supplemented with different levels (5, 10 and 15%) of defatted seed flour of Moringa (DSFM) and fenugreek (DSFF) on antinutritional factors, protein content and digestibility and total and extractable Ca, P and Fe was investigated. The antinutritional factors were increased (P≤0.05) with an increase in supplementation levels. However, processing of both raw and supplemented flour decreased (P≤0.05) the antinutritional factors. The reduction in antinutrients was accompanied by an increase (P≤0.05) in protein content, IVPD, total and extractable Ca, P, and Fe of supplemented flour compared to that of raw samples. Fermentation increased (P≤0.05) the protein content, IVPD, total and extractable Ca, P and Fe contents of the samples with supplementation level. Cooking of fermented dough slightly increased the protein content and IVPD of the samples but lowered both total and extractable Ca, Fe and P. Higher antinutritional factors, protein and IVPD were observed in millet dough supplemented with DSFM compared to that of DSFF while the total and extractable minerals of the supplemented flours are varied. Results obtained revealed that addition of DSFM and DSFF followed by the cooking of the fermented dough is a useful method to improve the nutritional value of millet flour.